Friday, December 27, 2013

Invisible Broken Wire Detector

Portable loads such as video cameras, halogen flood lights, electrical irons, hand drillers, grinders, and cutters are powered by connecting long 2- or 3-core cables to the mains plug. Due to prolonged usage, the power cord wires are subjected to mechanical strain and stress, which can lead to internal snapping of wires at any point. In such a case most people go for replacing the core/cable, as finding the exact location of a broken wire is difficult.

In 3-core cables, it appears almost impossible to detect a broken wire and the point of break without physically disturbing all the three wires that are concealed in a PVC jacket. The circuit presented here can easily and quickly detect a broken/faulty wire and its breakage point in 1-core, 2-core, and 3-core cables without physically disturbing wires. It is built using hex inverter CMOS CD4069.

Gates N3 and N4 are used as a pulse generator that oscillates at around 1000 Hz in audio range. The frequency is determined by timing components comprising resistors R3 and R4, and capacitor C1. Gates N1 and N2 are used to sense the presence of 230V AC field around the live wire and buffer weak AC voltage picked from the test probe. The voltage at output pin 10 of gate N2 can enable or inhibit the oscillator circuit.

When the test probe is away from any high-voltage AC field, output pin 10 of gate N2 remains low. As a result, diode D3 conducts and inhibits the oscillator circuit from oscillating. Simultaneously, the output of gate N3 at pin 6 goes ‘low’ to cut off transistor T1. As a result, LED1 goes off. When the test probe is moved closer to 230V AC, 50Hz mains live wire, during every positive half-cycle, output pin 10 of gate N2 goes high.

Thus during every positive half-cycle of the mains frequency, the oscillator circuit is allowed to oscillate at around 1 kHz, making red LED (LED1) to blink. (Due to the persistence of vision, the LED appears to be glowing continuously.) This type of blinking reduces consumption of the current from button cells used for power supply. A 3V DC supply is sufficient for powering the whole circuit.

Circuit diagram:

Invisible Broken Wire Detector Circuit Diagram

AG13 or LR44 type button cells, which are also used inside laser pointers or in LED-based continuity testers, can be used for the circuit. The circuit consumes 3 mA during the sensing of AC mains voltage. For audio-visual indication, one may use a small buzzer (usually built inside quartz alarm time pieces) in parallel with one small (3mm) LCD in place of LED1 and resistor R5. In such a case, the current consumption of the circuit will be around 7 mA.

Alternatively, one may use two 1.5V R6- or AA-type batteries. Using this gadget, one can also quickly detect fused small filament bulbs in serial loops powered by 230V AC mains.
The whole circuit can be accommodated in a small PVC pipe and used as a handy broken-wire detector. Before detecting broken faulty wires, take out any connected load and find out the faulty wire first by continuity method using any multimeter or continuity tester.

Then connect 230V AC mains live wire at one end of the faulty wire, leaving the other end free. Connect neutral terminal of the mains AC to the remaining wires at one end. However, if any of the remaining wires is also found to be faulty, then both ends of these wires are connected to neutral. For single-wire testing, connecting neutral only to the live wire at one end is sufficient to detect the breakage point.

In this circuit, a 5cm (2-inch) long, thick, single-strand wire is used as the test probe. To detect the breakage point, turn on switch S1 and slowly move the test probe closer to the faulty wire, beginning with the input point of the live wire and proceeding towards its other end. LED1 starts glowing during the presence of AC voltage in faulty wire. When the breakage point is reached, LED1 immediately extinguishes due to the non-availability of mains AC voltage.

The point where LED1 is turned off is the exact broken-wire point. While testing a broken 3-core rounded cable wire, bend the probe’s edge in the form of ‘J’ to increase its sensitivity and move the bent edge of the test probe closer over the cable. During testing avoid any strong electric field close to the circuit to avoid false detection.
Author: K. Udhaya Kumaran
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Thursday, December 26, 2013

A Handy Pen Torch

This easy to construct “Handy pen torch” electronic circuit and low component count, uses two power white LEDs for lighting. Low volt (4.8V dc) supply available from the built in rechargeable Ni-Cd battery pack is first converted into two channel (independent) constant current sources by two pieces of the renowned precision adjustable shunt regulator chip LM334 (IC1 and IC2). Around 25mA at 3.6 volt dc is available at the output of these ICs.

A regulated dc supply is used to drive two power white LEDs D4 and D6. Resistors R3 and R5 limits the output current (and hence the light output) of IC1 and IC2 circuits respectively. Besides these components, one red color LED (D2) is included in the main circuit which works as a battery charging supply input indicator. Resistor R1 limits the operating current of this LED.

Pen Torch Electronic Circuit Schematic

Circuit Project: Handy Pen Torch circuit

Diode D1 works as an input polarity guard cum reverse current flow preventer. Capacitor C1 is a simple buffer for circuit stabilization. After succesful construction, preferably on a small piece of general purpose PCB, enclose the whole circuit in a suitable and attractive pen torch cabinet. If necessary, drill suitable holes in the cabinet to attach the dc socket, on/off switch and the input indicator etc.

In prototype, commonly available 4.8 volt/500mah Ni-Cd battery pack (for cordless telephones) is used. One very simple but reliable ac mains powered battery charger circuit for the handy pen torch is also included here. Basically the pen torch circuit is a constant current charger wired around Transistor T1 (BC636), powered by a 12v/350mA step down transformer and associated componentsD1, D2 and C1.

AC mains powered battery charger for the pen torch

Circuit Project: Handy Pen Torch circuit

Unregulated 12 volt dc available from the input power converter circuit, comprising step down transformer(TRF), rectifier diodes (D1,D2) and filter capacitor (C1), is fed to T1 through a current limiting resistor R1. Grounded base PNP transistor T1 here works as a constant current generator. With 22 ohm resistor for R1, the charging current available at the output of the charger is near 50mA.

Red LED (D3) provides a fixed voltage reference to the base of T1, with the help of resistor R2. (During charging process, Diode D1 in the main circuit prevent reverse current flow from the battery pack when charging input supply is absent.) After construction of the pen torch circuit, fit the assembled unit inside a small plastic enclosure for safety and convenience.

Circuit Source: DIY Electronics Projects
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Wednesday, December 25, 2013

LED Bike Light

On my mountain bike I always used to have one of those well-known flashing LED lights from the high street shop. These often gave me trouble with flat batteries and lights that fell off. As an electronics student I thought: “this can be done better”. First I bought another front wheel, one which has a dynamo already built in the hub. This supplied a nice sine wave of 30 Vpp (at no load). 

With this knowledge I designed a simple power supply. The transistors that are used are type BD911.These are a bit of an over-kill, but there were plenty of these at my school, so that is why I used them. Something a little smaller will also work. The power supply is connected to an astable multi-vibrator. This alternately drives the front light and the rear light. The frequency is determined by the RC time-constant of R3 and C3, and R2 and C4. This time can be calculated with the formula: t = R3×C3 = 20×103×10×10-6 = 0.2 s You can use a 22k (common value) for R2 and R3, that doesn’t make much difference. On a small piece of prototyping board are six LEDs with a voltage dropping resistor in series with each pair of LEDs.

LED Bike Light Circuit Diagram

Such a PCB is used for both the front and the rear of the bike. Of course, you use white LEDs for the front and red ones for the rear. The PCB with the main circuit is mounted under the seat, where it is safe and has been working for more than a year now. There are a few things I would change for the next revision. An on/off switch would be nice. And if the whole circuit was built with SMD parts it could be mounted near the front light. This would also be more convenient when routing the wiring. Now the cable from the dynamo goes all the way to the seat and from there to the front and rear lights.

Source :

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Tuesday, December 24, 2013

Rain Sound Effects Generator

This rain sound effects generator circuit simulates the rain noise and may be used in the field of electronic music and radio shows.As a noise source we use a germanium diode that is directly polarized then is amplifier by a single stage amplifier in order to obtain an acceptable audio level.

A high-pass filter with an adjustable lower limit, built with P1 and C3, allow coverage of the entire range of sound effects from light rain and to torrential rain.The current consumption is low so you can use a 9V battery. Instead of BC107 you can use any NPN transistor.

Rain Sound Effects Circuit Schematic

Circuit Project: Rain Sound Effects Generator circuit
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Monday, December 23, 2013

It is due to the insulation feature of the antenna

It is

due to the insulation feature of the antenna of cell phone jammer .
Product Type: licensed are already C at the end (K790c (quotation Lively), the M608c (quotations Lively video)), parallel imports are already i at the end (such as the K790i, M600i). Although it is

the leader in the industry, Nokia parallel and, like Motorola, Samsung, as the momentum of rapid, the main reason is OK, the difference between the water is not obvious, usually only about two or

three hundred dollars, and weak The difference is difficult to inspire the majority of consumer desire to buy. However, among the four brands, Nokia parallel is most difficult to identify, there is

no way to start in appearance, can only be found to plant date, the model code or the details to identify the authenticity. cell phone jammer can work effectively and act on the shielding in the

location.It is the biggest feature and advantage of cell phone jammer
The differential between the Nokia phone lines, water points. No. Enquiry: enter * # 0000 # to view the version number, manufacture date, model code, enter * # 92702689 # to view the motherboard

factory date information. IEMI yards Enquiries: Nokia mobile phones directly press the "* # 06 # on your phone, the phone will appear 15 IEMI yards, 7-8 bit code is the origin code, control is as

follows: 10 = Finland (Finland), 20 = German ( Germany), 30 = South Korea (Korea). Directly call the Nokia customer service telephone and Internet inquiries. Identification methods in line water

Motorola. Although not as large as the parallel product line of Samsung, Motorolas V3 (quote Lively video panorama), E680i. (Quote Lively video panorama). It is the location where cell phone

jammer is needed.
The A1200 (quotations Lively video) and several of its products, all crack, occupying a great share of the gray market, of course, Motorola cell phone line, water is relatively good to identify, in

appearance, features, accessories, etc. Direct identification. The differential between the Motorola phone lines, water points. Appearance: licensed to work fine, relatively rough parallel,

keyboard strokes are engraved. The software features: You can check the version number on the machine. GPRS, not directly to the Internet. Accessories: the parallel headset mostly not original,

rough work, easy to fade. In addition, funeral expenses random gift CD picture is fuzzy, and are generally VCD discs posing. OK water identification method other brand papers. More working

efficiency of the antenna and host of cell phone jammer can be ensured.
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Sunday, December 22, 2013

Power Supply Monitor Memory Protector Circuit Diagram

This Power Supply Monitor-Memory Protector Circuit Diagram detects low-voltage supply conditions, down to 0.6 V. Dl sets the trip point of the circuit. The circuit is useful to protect memory circuits from accidental writes in the event of power-supply low-voltage conditions, which cause other circuits to turn off, etc. Response time is about 700 ns. R6 provides some hysteresis to ensure clean transitions.

Power Supply Monitor-Memory Protector Circuit Diagram

Power Supply Monitor-Memory Protector Circuit Diagram

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Saturday, December 21, 2013

Basic 12V Output To 5V Buck Regulator Circuit Diagram

This is 12V Output To 5V Buck Regulator Circuit Diagram. By adding a flyback winding to a buck-regulator switching converter (see the figure), wliich is essentially a 5-V supply with a 200-mA output capability, a 12-V output ) can be produced. 

The flyback winding on the main inductor (forming transformer Tl) enables an additional low- dropout linear regulator (IC2) to create the 12-V output voltage that`s needed to program EEPROMs.The required input voltage is 8 to 16 V.

12V Output To 5V Buck Regulator Circuit Diagram

12V Output To 5V Buck Regulator Circuit Diagram

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Friday, December 20, 2013

Current to Voltage Converter Circuit Diagram

A filter removes the dc component of the rectified ac, which is then scaled to RMS. The output is linear from 40 Hz to 10 kHz or higher.

 Current to Voltage Converter Circuit Diagram

Current to Voltage Converter Circuit Diagram

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Thursday, December 19, 2013

Network Voltage Indicator

Using this schematic can be made a network voltage indicator electronic circuit. If the input voltage is present across the network, the optocoupler transistor is open, T1 is blocked and controlled rectifier, Th1, is in a state of conduction. Since both terminals of the piezoelectric buzzer is at the same potential, buzzer is off. If voltage disappears, the transistor T1 enters the conduction and thus makes the terminal of buzzer to be put on the ground (maintains thyristor conduction state).

Circuit Project: Network voltage indicator electronic circuit

In this situation, there is a sufficiently large potential difference across the buzzer and D5s to determine that these two elements to indicate AC power loss, both audible and visual. By pressing the reset button current is interrupted by Th1, so thyristor enter in blocking state and the other terminal of the buzzer is connected to ground.
Circuit Source: DIY Electronics Projects
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Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Simple US Style Siren Circuit

The circuit described here can create three different ‘US-style’ siren sounds: police, ambulance and fire engine. The desired sound can be selected using switch S1. The circuit can be used in toys (such as model vehicles), as part of an alarm system, and in many other applications. For use in a toy, a BC337 is an adequate device for driver T5, since it is capable of directly driving a 200mW (8Ω) loudspeaker.


Circuit diagram :

US-Style Siren-Circuit diagram

Simple US-Style Siren Circuit Diagram

In this case the current consumption from a 9 V power supply is around 140 mA. If a louder sound is required, a BD136 is recommended: this can drive a 5W (8Ω) loudspeaker. The current consumption from a 12 V supply will then be about 180mA. If still more volume is desired, then T5 (a BD136) can be used as a first driver stage, and a 15W (8Ω) loudspeaker can be connected via output transistor T6.

Here an AD162 or an MJ2955 can be used, which, for continuous operation, must be provided with cooling. The peak current consumption of the circuit will now be about 500mA with a 12V power supply. Capacitor C1 is not required for battery operation.

Author : L.  Libertin - Copyright : Elektor

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Tuesday, December 17, 2013


      This circuit uses a complementary pair comprising npn metallic transistor T1 (BC109) and pnp germanium transistor T2 (AC188) to detect heat (due to outbreak of fire, etc) in the vicinity and energise a siren. The collector of transistor T1 is connected to the base of transistor T2, while the collector of transistor T2 is connected to relay RL1.

     The second part of the circuit comprises popular IC UM3561 (a siren and machine-gun sound generator IC), which can produce the sound of a fire-brigade siren. Pin numbers 5 and 6 of the IC are connected to the +3V supply when the relay is in energised state, whereas pin 2 is grounded. A resistor (R2) connected across pins 7 and 8 is used to fix the frequency of the inbuilt oscillator. The output is available from pin 3.

     Two transistors BC147 (T3) and BEL187 (T4) are connected in Darlington configuration to amplify the sound from UM3561. Resistor R4 in series with a 3V zener is used to provide the 3V supply to UM3561 when the re- lay is in energised state. LED1, connected in series with 68-ohm resistor R1 across resistor R4, glows when the siren is on.

     To test the working of the circuit, bring a burning matchstick close to transistor T1 (BC109), which causes the resistance of its emitter-collector junction to go low due to a rise in temperature and it starts conducting. Simultaneously, transistor T2 also conducts because its base is connected to the collector of transistor T1. As a result, relay RL1 energises and switches on the siren circuit to produce loud sound of a firebrigade siren.
      Lab note. We have added a table to enable readers to obtain all possible sound effects by returning pins 1 and 2 as suggested in the table.
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Monday, December 16, 2013

Simple motor Circuit diagram


Hi everyone today Im going to give you a very simple and important circuit.We all know about the motor but we dont know how to make a simple motor so here is the way to make a simple motor circuit diagram 
What you want is a magnet battery and a coil.And try to fix it as it shows  


# Use insulated coils 
# Use 1.5 V battery
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Thursday, October 10, 2013



schematic diagram of light position controller which is a monolithic integrated circuit often used in passenger cars. The potentiometer in the dashboard is used to define the light beam’s elevation of the car’s headlight to a state be the car driver.
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Wednesday, October 9, 2013

LED Torch

Nowadays LED are very popular. Some are using LED lights for homes instead of CFL as LED power consumption is really low. Now I am going to introduce you a torch with a single LED bulb which gives 90 times longer service than a normal bulb when you use AA alkaline batteries. Normally general torch bulbs consumes about 1.8 Watts while LED consumes about 25 mW . Can you believe this! But the brightness is same.

The below simple circuit is design for 6 Volts supply if you want to use 9 Volts then simply change the value of the R3 resistor in to 470 Ohms.

To get best results do not use a normal LED which are available in the market use the specific one.

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Tuesday, October 8, 2013

Relay Coil Energy Saver

Some relays will become warm if they remain energized for some time. The circuit shown here will actuate the relay as before but then reduce the ‘hold’ current through the relay coil current by about 50%, thus considerably reducing the amount of heat dissipation and wasted power. The circuit is only suitable for relays that remain on for long periods. The following equations will enable the circuit to be dimensioned for the relay on hand: R3 = 0.7 / I Charge time = 0.5 × R2 × C1 Where I is the relay coil current. After the relay has been switched off, a short delay should be allowed for the relay current to return to maximum so the relay can be energized again at full power. To make the delay as short as possible, keep C1 as small as possible. In practice, a minimum delay of about 5 seconds should be allowed but this is open to experimentation.

Relay Coil Energy Saver circuit schematic

The action of C2 causes the full supply voltage to appear briefly across the relay coil, which helps to activate the relay as fast as possible. Via T2, a delay network consisting of C1 and R2 controls the relay coil current flowing through T1 and R3, effectively reducing it to half the ‘pull in’ current. Diode D2 discharges C1 when the control voltage is Low. Around one second will be needed to completely discharge C1. T2 shunts the bias current of T1 when the delay has elapsed. Diode D1 helps to discharge C1 as quickly as possible. The relay shown in the circuit was specified at 12 V / 400 ohms. All component values for guidance only.
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Monday, October 7, 2013

Battery Desulphation Progress Monitor

A number of readers have asked how to tell when the Lead-Acid Battery Zapper has done its job and battery desulphation is complete. In the author’s experience, batteries that are going to respond to this treatment will generally show quite a high peak voltage across the terminals at the beginning of the treatment. If this steadily decreases and practically disappears, then the treatment is near to complete. This may take anything from a week to many months, depending on the size and condition of the battery. In the absence of an oscilloscope to monitor the voltage peaks, a simple peak detector can be constructed from a fast diode and 100nF capacitor. Any high-impedance multimeter (eg, most digital types) can then be used to measure the average DC voltage across the capacitor.

Battery desulphation progress monitor
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Sunday, October 6, 2013

Cheap AC Current Measurement

The easy way to measure high AC currents is to use a clamp meter but these are generally quite expensive and cost several hundred dollars at a minimum. Add-on clampmeter adaptors can work well but they only work with digital multimeters which have millivolt AC resolution. This is because the output of most clamp adaptors is quite low, 0.1A = 1mV, for example. This is no good for typical cheap DMMs which have a lowest AC voltage range of 200V. This circuit can be built into a low cost clamp meter such as the Digitech QM-1565 from Jaycar Electronics. When dismantling this clamp adaptor, remove the label which has the AC range conversion factors and then undo the two screws gain access to the inside.

Cheap AC current measurement circuit schematic

The two cross-connected transistors act like low voltage drop diodes to generate a DC voltage which is proportional to the current in the primary of clamp adaptor (ie, the circuit under test). The recommended transistors are power germanium types such as ADZ16, AD162, AD149, ADY16, 2SD471, OC16 and OC28. This approach gives lowest voltage drop and good linearity, from 10 to 300A. Schottky power diodes can also be used but the result will not be as linear. To calibrate, wind 10 turns through the clamp adaptors jaws and feed a current of 20A through the winding. This is equivalent to a single turn carrying 200A. Set the trimpot to suit your multimeter, normally set to the 2V DC range. Do not calibrate for a low current otherwise accuracy at high currents will be poor.
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Saturday, October 5, 2013

3x3x3 LED Cube Circuit Diagram



This circuit drives a 3x3x3 cube consisting of 27 white LEDs. The 4020 IC is a 14 stage binary counter and we have used 9 outputs. Each output drives 3 white LEDs in series and we have omitted a dropper resistor as the chip can only deliver a maximum of 15mA per output. The 4020 produces 512 different patterns before the sequence repeats and you have to build the project to see the effects it produces on the 3D cube.

Circuit diagram

3x3x3 LED Cube Circuit Diagram 3x3x3 LED Cube Circuit diagram

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Friday, October 4, 2013

Automatic Headlight Reminder

Do you drive an older car without an automatic "lights-on" warning circuit? If so, youve probably accidentally left the lights on and flattened the battery on one or more occasions. This headlights reminder circuit will prevent that. Its more complicated than other circuits but its also more versatile. As shown, the circuit uses two low-cost ICs. IC1 is a 555 timer which is wired to operate in astable mode. Its output clocks IC2, a 4017B decade counter. IC2 in turn drives a row of indicator LEDs and also resets IC1 (after about 10s) via transistor Q2.

The circuit works like this:

When the ignition is on, transistor Q1 is also on and this pulls pin 4 of IC1 low. As a result, IC1 is held reset and no clock pulses are fed to IC2. Conversely, if the ignition is turned off, Q1 will turn off and so IC1 will start oscillating and sound the piezo siren. At the same time, IC1 will clock IC2 and so LEDs 1-10 will light in sequence and stop (after about 10s) with the last LED (LED10) remaining on. Thats because, when IC2s O9 output (ie, pin 11) goes high, Q2 also turns on and this pulls pin 4 of IC1 low, thus stopping the oscillator (and the siren).

Circuit diagram:


Automatic Headlight Reminder Circuit Diagram


That different colored LEDs are used to make the display look eye-catching but you make all LEDs the same color if you wish. Installing optional diode D1 will alter IC1s frequency and this will alter the display rate. Finally, if the lights are turned off and then back on again, the alarm will automatically retrigger. LED1 is always on if the lights are turned on. If you dont want the LED display, just leave the LEDs out.

Author: L. Marshall - Copyright: Silicon Chip Electronics

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Thursday, October 3, 2013

Efficient Fan Speed Controller

A partial solution to quietening noisy PCs can be to reduce the speed of internal cooling fans. Low-cost fan speed controllers are available, but they often employ inefficient, heat-generating linear regulators and contain no temperature feedback mechanism. This idea makes use of a readily available, cheap in-car mobile phone charger. The majority of these use common circuitry and require only minor modifications to operate as efficient fan speed controllers complete with temperature feedback. Most in-car chargers are based on the well-known MC34063 DC-DC switch-mode IC.

When used for charging mobile phones, the open-circuit output voltage is typically set to between 7V and 9V. This is achieved with a simple voltage divider across the output, the centre point of which connects to the feedback input (pin 5) of the MC34063. To make the output voltage var-iable with air temperature, first replace the upper resistor of the divider with a 4.7kΩ resistor in series with a 4.7kΩ trimpot. The lower half of the divider is then replaced with a 470Ω resistor in series with a 500Ω NTC thermistor. These values are only a guide and can be varied to suit different thermistor and fan types.

Efficient fan speed controller circuit schematic
Note that component lead length should be minimized to avoid introducing noise into the feedback circuitry. Getting the correct fan starting voltage is a matter of trial and error. The values shown on the circuit give a starting voltage of about 6.8V at room temperature but trimpot VR1 can be used to raise this voltage as necessary. The output can then rise to about 10V if the interior temperature rises sufficiently. The 4.7kΩ resistor could be reduced to 3.9kΩ and VR1 adjusted to give a lower starting voltage if the fan speed is still too high at 7V. After running for one hour or so, the fan voltage as set by the interior case temperature thermistor on my PC settled at 7.4V.

Suitable chargers are available from Oatley Electronics, Cat. No. 2D0074. They’re currently listed at $5 for two, which is less than the price of the MC34063 ICs alone! Data on the MC34063 can be downloaded from and a useful development aid is to be found at Finally, note that not all chargers have an output filter capacitor installed. Typically, this is a 220µF 10V or 16V electrolytic type. To save a few cents, the manufacturers sometimes leave this component out, relying on the mobile’s battery to perform the filtering task. If this component is missing from your charger’s PC board, it should be installed before the supply is used.
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Wednesday, October 2, 2013

Ten Band Equalizer

The equalizer presented in this article is suitable for use with hi-fi installations, public-address systems. mixers and electronic musical instruments. The relay contacts at the inputs and outputs, in conjunction with S2, enable the desired channel to be selected. The input may be linked directly to the output, if wanted. The input impedance and amplification of the equalizer are set with S1 and S3. The audio frequency spectrum of 31 Hz to 16 kHz is divided into ten bands. Ten bands require ten filters, of which nine are passive and one active. The passive filters are identical in design and differ only in the value of the relevant inductors and capacitors. The requisite characteristics of the filters are achieved by series and parallel networks.

The filter for the lowest frequency band is an active one to avoid a very large value of inductance. It is based in a traditional manner on op amp A1. The inductors used in the passive filters are readily available small chokes. The filter based on L1 and L2 operates at about the lowest frequency (62 Hz) that can be achieved with standard, passive components. The Q(uality) factor of the filters can, in principle, be raised slightly by increasing the value of R19 and R23, as well as that of P1–P10, but that would be at the expense of the noise level of op amp IC1. With component values as specified, the control range is about ±11 dB, which in most case will be fine. A much larger range is not attainable without major redesign.

Ten-Band EqualizerThe input level can be adjusted with P1, which may be necessary for adjusting the balance between the channels or when a loudness control is used in the output amplifiers. Several types of op amp can be used:in the prototype, IC1 is an LT1007, and IC2, an OP275. Other suitable types for IC1 are OP27 or NE5534; and for IC2, AD712, LM833 and NE5532. If an NE5534 is used for IC1, C2 is needed; in all other cases, not. The circuit needs to be powered by a regulated, symmetrical 15 V supply. It draws a current of not more than about 10mA.
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Tuesday, October 1, 2013

Logic PSU With Over Voltage Protection

A simple 5 Volt regulated PSU featuring overvoltage protection. The 5 volt regulated power supply for TTL and 74LS series integrated circuits, has to be very precise and tolerant of voltage transients. These ICs are easily damaged by short voltage spikes. A fuse will blow when its current rating is exceeded, but requires several hundred milliseconds to respond. This circuit will react in a few microseconds, triggered when the output voltage exceeds the limit of the zener diode. This circuit uses the crowbar method, where a thyristor is employed and short circuits the supply, causing the fuse to blow. This will take place in a few microseconds or less, and so offers much greater protection than an ordinary fuse.

If the output voltage exceed 5.6Volt, then the zener diode will conduct, switching on the thyristor (all in a few microseconds), the output voltage is therefore reduced to 0 volts and sensitive logic ICs will be saved. The fuse will still take a few hundred milliseconds to blow but this is not important now because the supply to the circuit is already at zero volts and no damage can be done. The dc input to the regulator needs to be a few volts higher than the regulator voltage. In the case of a 5v regulator, I would recommend a transformer with secondary voltage of 8-10volts ac. By choosing a different regulator and zener diode, you can build an over voltag trip at any value.
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Monday, September 30, 2013

Servo Tester Using A 4538

There are times when a small servo tester for modeling comes in very useful. Everybody who regularly works with servos will know several instances when such a servo tester will come in handy. The function of a servo tester is to generate a pulsing signal where the width of the positive pulse can be varied between 1 and 2 ms. This pulse-width determines the position the servo should move to. The signal has to repeat itself continuously, with a frequency of about 40 to 60 Hz. These circuits often use an NE555 or one of its derivatives to generate the pulses. This time we have used a 4538 for variety. This IC contains two astable multi-vibrators. You can see from the circuit diagram that not many other components are required besides the 4538. The astable multi-vibrator in a 4538 can be started in two ways. When input I 0 (pin 5 or 11) is high, a rising edge on input I 1 (pin 4 or 12) is the start signal to generate a pulse.

Servo Tester using a 4538 circuit schematic

The pulse-width at the output of IC1a is equal to (R1+P1)×C1. This means that when potentiometer P1 is turned to its minimum resistance, the pulse-width will be 10 k × 100 n = 1 ms. When P1 is set to maximum (10 k), the pulse-width becomes 20 k × 100 n = 2 ms. At the end of this pulse inverting output Q generates a rising edge. This edge triggers IC1.B, which then generates a pulse. The pulse-width here is 82 k × 220 n ˜ 18 ms. At the end of this pulse the Q output will also generate a rising edge. This in turn makes IC1.A generate a pulse again. This completes the circle. Depending on P1, the total period is between 19 and 20 ms. This corresponds to a frequency of about 50 to 53 Hz and is therefore well within the permitted frequency range.
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Sunday, September 29, 2013

Low Battery Indicator II

This circuit indicates the remaining battery life bAy varying the duty cycle and flash rate of an LED as the battery voltage decreases. In fact, the circuit actually indicates five battery conditions: (1) a steady glow assures indicates that the battery is healthy; (2) a 2Hz flicker (briefly off) indicates that the battery is starting to show age; (3) a 5Hz 50% duty-cycle flash is a warning that you should have a spare battery on hand; (4) a brief flicker on at a 2Hz rate indicates the batterys last gasp; and (5) when the LED is continuously off, its time to replace the battery. IC1 is wired as an oscillator/comparator, with a nominal fixed voltage reference of about 1.5V on its pin 2 (inverting) input (actually, it varies between about 1.7V and 1.4V depending on the hysteresis provided via R6).

Low battery indicator circuit schematic

This reference voltage is derived from a voltage divider consisting of resistors R4 & R5, which are connected across the 5V rail derived from regulator REG1, and feedback resistor R6. Similarly, IC1s pin 3 input (non-inverting) is connected to a voltage divider consisting of R1 & R2 which are across the 9V battery. Using the component values shown, the circuit will switch LED1 from being continuously on to flash mode when the 9V battery drops to about 6.5V. Subsequently, LED1 is continuously off for battery voltages below 5.5V.

Naturally, you can tweak the resistor values in the divider network for different voltage thresholds as desired. In operation, the circuit oscillates only when the sampled battery voltage (ie, the voltage on pin 3) is between the upper and lower voltage thresholds set on pin 2. Capacitor C3 provides the timing. Above and below these limits, IC1 simply functions as a comparator and holds LED1 continuously on or off. Finally, to precisely set the "dead-battery" threshold, make R4 adjustable to offset the variations in regulator tolerance.
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Saturday, September 28, 2013

Push Bike Light

Automatic switch-on when it gets dark, 6V or 3V battery operation

This design was primarily intended to allow automatic switch-on of push-bike lights when it gets dark. Obviously, it can be used for any other purpose involving one or more lamps to be switched on and off depending of light intensity. Power can be supplied by any type of battery suitable to be fitted in your bike and having a voltage in the 3 to 6 Volts range.

The Photo resistor R1 should be fitted into the box containing the complete circuit, but a hole should be made in a convenient side of the box to allow the light hitting the sensor. Trim R2 until the desired switching threshold is reached. The setup will require some experimenting, but it should not be difficult.

Circuit diagram:

Push-Bike Light Circuit Diagram

Push-Bike Light Circuit Diagram


R1_____________Photo resistor (any type)
R2______________22K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet or Carbon type
R3_______________1K 1/4W Resistor
R4_______________2K7 1/4W Resistor
R5_____________330R 1/4W Resistor (See Notes)
R6_______________1R5 1W Resistor (See Notes)
D1____________1N4148 75V 150mA Diode
Q1_____________BC547 45V 200mA NPN Transistor
Q2_____________BD438 45V 4A PNP Transistor
LP1____________Filament Lamp(s) (See Notes)
SW1_____________SPST Toggle or Slider Switch
B1______________6V or 3V Battery (See Notes)


  • In this circuit, the maximum current and voltage delivered to the lamp(s) are limited mainly by R6 (that cant be omitted if a clean and reliable switching is expected). Therefore, the Ohms Law must be used to calculate the best voltage and current values of the bulbs.
  • For example: at 6V supply, one or more 6V bulbs having a total current drawing of 500mA can be used, but for a total current drawing of 1A, 4.5V bulbs must be chosen, as the voltage drop across R6 will become 1.5V. In this case, R6 should be a 2W type.
  • At 3V supply, R6 value can be lowered to 1 or 0.5 Ohm and the operating voltage of the bulbs should be chosen accordingly, by applying the Ohms Law.
  • Example: Supply voltage = 3V, R6 = 1R, total current drawing 600mA. Choose 2.2V bulbs as the voltage drop caused by R6 will be 0.6V.
  • At 3V supply, R5 value must be changed to 100R.
  • Stand-by current is less than 500µA, provided R2 value after trimming is set at about 5K or higher: therefore, the power switch SW1 can be omitted. If R2 value is set below 5K the stand-by current will increase substantially.

Source :

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Friday, September 27, 2013

Anti Theft Security For Car Audios

This small circuit, based on popular CMOS NAND chip CD4093, can be effectively used for protecting your expensive car audio system against theft. When 12V DC from the car battery is applied to the gadget (as indicated by LED1) through switch S1, the circuit goes into standby mode. LED inside optocoupler IC1 is lit as its cathode terminal is grounded via the car audio (amplifier) body. As a result, the output at pin 3 of gate N1 goes low and disables the rest of the circuit. Whenever an attempt is made to remove the car audio from its mounting by cutting its connecting wires, the optocoupler immediately turns off, as its LED cathode terminal is hanging. As a result, the oscillator circuit built around gates N2 and N3 is enabled and it controls the ‘on’/‘off’ timings of the relay via transistor T2. (Relay contacts can be used to energise an emergency beeper, indicator, car horns, etc, as desired.)

Circuit Diagrams

Anti-Theft Security For Car Audios

Different values of capacitor C2 give different ‘on’/‘off’ timings for relay RL1 to be ‘on’/‘off’. With 100µF we get approximately 5 seconds as ‘on’ and 5 seconds as ‘off’ time. Gate N4, with its associated components, forms a self-testing circuit. Normally, both of its inputs are in ‘high’ state. However, when one switches off the ignition key, the supply to the car audio is also disconnected. Thus the output of gate N4 jumps to a ‘high’ state and it provides a differentiated short pulse to forward bias transistor T1 for a short duration. (The combination of capacitor C1 and resistor R5 acts as the differentiating circuit.)As a result, buzzer in the collector terminal of T1 beeps for a short duration to announce that to announce that the security circuit is intact. This ‘on’ period of buzzer can be varied by changing the values of capacitor C1 and/or resistor R5. After construction, fix the LED and buzzer in dashboard as per your requirement and hide switch S1 in a suitable location. Then connect lead A to the body of car stereo (not to the body of vehicle) and lead B to its positive lead terminal. Take power supply for the circuit from the car battery directly.


  • This design is meant for car audios with negative ground only.

Author:T.K  Hareendran Copyright: Circuit Ideas

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Thursday, September 26, 2013

General Purpose Oscillator

The oscillator shown in Figure1 is frequently used in digital circuits and may, therefore, look very familiar. Many readers may not know that this type of oscillator suffers from a nasty draw-back caused by noise. When the amplitude of the noise is higher than the hysteresis of the gates used for the oscillator, spurious switching pulses are generated near the zero crossings. This problem can be cured only by ensuring that the rise time of the input signal is shorter than the reaction time of the relevant gate. When the oscillator is built with fast logic gates, such as those in the HC-series, the like-lihood of the problem occurring is great.

General Purpose OscillatorHowever, as long as the positive feedback is fast enough, nothing untoward will happen. However, when delays occur owing to the transit time of the components used, the problem may rear its head. In the configuration of Figure 1a, the signal passes through two inverters and thus experiences twice the transit time of a single gate. The upper signal in the oscilloscope trace in Figure 2 shows the result of this: the gates used are simply too fast for this type of oscillator. If one of the inverters is replaced by a buffer, and the oscillator is modified as shown in Figure 1b, the transit time is limited to that of one gate: the lower trace in Figure 2 shows that the oscillator then works correctly. The practical circuit diagram of the general-purpose oscillator is shown in Figure 3. Note that two XOR gates are used to ensure that the transit time of the buffer is equal to that of the inverter.

General Purpose Oscillator
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Wednesday, September 25, 2013

LED Flasher With One Transistor

The circuit uses a flashing LED to flash a super-bright 20,000mcd white LED

This is a novel flasher circuit using a sin istor that takes its flashrate from a flashing LED. The flasher in the photo is 3mm. An ordinary LED will not work.



The flash rate cannot be altered by the brightness of the high-bright white LED can be adjusted by altering the 1k resistor across the 100u electrolytic to 4k7 or 10k. The 1k resistor discharges the 100u so that when the transistor turns on, the charging current into the 100u illuminates the white LED.If a 10k discharge resistor is used, the 100u is not fully discharged and the LED does not flash as bright.

Circuit diagram:

LED Flasher Circuit diagram LED Flasher With One Transistor circuit diagram

All the parts in the photo are in the same places as in the circuit diagram to make it easy to see how the parts are connected.

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Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Case Modding

The aesthetics of ‘case modding’ (modifying a PC’s enclosure) offer plenty of scope for debate and plenty of scope for original circuits. Low current LED indicators are usually fitted in PC enclosures. Although this certainly saves energy, the LEDs do not light particularly brightly. It is not completely straightforward to replace the low-current types with high-brightness types since the latter draw a current of 20 mA rather than 2 mA. This can - whatever people might tell you to the contrary - in some instances lead to excessive load on the LED drivers on the motherboard.


The problem can be solved using a small external driver stage: two resistors and a transistor mounted on a small piece of perforated board, connected in place of the original LED. The new high-brightness LED is then connected between the output of the current source and a spare motherboard ground connection (for example on the infrared port) or to a grounded screw in the enclosure. R1 is responsible for the constant current. High-brightness red LEDs are driven at 20 mA (R1 = 150 Ω), whereas high-brightness blue LEDs require 10 mA (R1 = 75 Ω). In view of the large number of different PC motherboards available, it is not certain that this driver can be used in every PC. It is easy to check whether the circuit will work: use a DC voltmeter to measure the voltage between the positive connection on the LED (generally a red wire or a pin marked with an arrow on the LED connector) and ground (not the other pin of the connector). If this reads +5 V independent of whether the LED is on or not, then the driver can be used.

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Monday, September 23, 2013

Whistling Kettle

Most electric kettles do not produce a whistle and just switch off when they have boiled. Fitting a box of electronics directly onto an electric kettle (or even inside!) to detect when the kettle has boiled is obviously out of the question. The circuit shown here detects when the kettle switches off, which virtually all kettles do when the water has boiled. In this way, the electronics can be housed in a separate box so that no modification is required to the kettle. The box is preferably a type incorporating a mains plug and socket. In this application, the current flowing in coil L1 provides a magnetic field that actuates reed switch S1. Since the current drawn by the kettle element is relatively large (typically 6 to 8 amps), the coil may consist of a few turns of wire around the reed switch.

The reed switch is so fast it will actually follow the AC current flow through L1 and produce a 100-Hz buzz. The switching circuit driven by the reed switch must, therefore, disregard these short periods when the contacts open, and respond only when they remain open for a relatively long period when the kettle has switched off. The circuit is based on a simple voltage controlled oscillator formed around T2 and T3. Its operation is best understood by considering the circuit with junction R4/R5 at 0 V and C4 discharged. T2 will receive base current through R5 and turn on, causing T3 to turn on as well. The falling collector voltage of T3 is transmitted to the base of T2 by C4 causing this transistor to conduct harder.

Since the action is regenerative, both transistors will turn on quickly and conduct heavily. C4 will therefore charge quickly through T2’s base-emitter junction and T3. Once the voltage across C4 exceeds about 8.5 V (leaving less than 0.5 V across T2’s b-e junction), T2 will begin to turn off. This action is also regenerative so that soon both transistors are switched off and the collector voltage of T3 rises rapidly to +9 V. With C4 still charged to 8.5 V, the base of T2 will rise to about 17.5 V holding T2 (and thus T3) off. C4 will now discharge relatively slowly via R5 until T2 again begins to conduct whereupon the cycle will repeat. The voltage at the collector of T3 will therefore be a series of short negative going pulses whose basic frequency will depend on the value of C4 and R5.

The pulses will be reproduced in the piezo sounder as a tone. The oscillation frequency of the regenerative circuit is heavily dependent on the voltage at junction R4/R5. As this voltage increases, the frequency will fall until a point is reached when the oscillation stops altogether. With this in mind, the operation of the circuit around T1 can be considered. In the standby condition, when the kettle is off, S1 will be open so that C1 and C2 will be discharged and T1 will remain off so that the circuit will draw no current. When the kettle is switched on, S1 is closed, causing C1 and C2 to be discharged and T1 will remain off. C3 will remain discharged so that T2 and T3 will be off and only a small current will be drawn by R1.

Although S1 will open periodically (at 100 Hz), the time constant of R1/C1 is such that C1 will have essentially no voltage on it as the S1 contacts continue to close. When the kettle switches off, S1 will be permanently open and C1/C2 will begin to charge via R1, causing T1 to switch on. C3 will then begin to charge via R4 and the falling voltage at junction R4/R5 will cause T2/T3 to start oscillating with a rising frequency. However, once T1 has switched off, C3 will no longer be charged via R4 and will begin to discharge via R3 and R5 causing the voltage at R4/R5 to rise again. The result is a falling frequency until the oscillator switches off, returning the circuit to its original condition.

As well as reducing the current drawn by the circuit to zero, this mimics the action of a conventional whistling kettle, where the frequency rises as more steam is produced and then falls when it is taken off the boil. The circuit is powered directly by the mains using a ‘lossless’ capacitive mains dropper, C6, and zener a diode, D2, to provide a nominal 8 V dc supply for the circuit. A 1-inch reed switch used in the prototype required about 9 turns of wire to operate with a 2-kW kettle element. Larger switches or lower current may require more turns. In general, the more turns you can fit on the reed switch, the better, but do remember that the wire has to be thick enough to carry the current. It is strongly recommended to test the circuit using a 9-volt battery instead of the mains-derived supply voltage shown in the circuit diagram. A magnet may be used to operate S1 and so simulate the switching of the kettle.

This circuit is connected directly to the 230-V mains and none of the components must be touched when the circuit is in use. The circuit must be housed in an approved ABS case and carry the earth connection to the load as indicated. Connections and solder joints to components with a voltage greater than 200 volts across them (ac or dc) must have an insulating clearance of least 6 mm. An X2 class capacitor must be used in position C6.
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Sunday, September 22, 2013

US Style Siren

The circuit described here can create three different ‘US-style’ siren sounds: police, ambulance and fire engine. The desired sound can be selected using switch S1. The circuit can be used in toys (such as model vehicles), as part of an alarm system, and in many other applications. For use in a toy, a BC337 is an adequate device for driver T5, since it is capable of directly driving a 200mW (8Ω) loudspeaker. In this case the current consumption from a 9 V power supply is around 140 mA. If a louder sound is required, a BD136 is recommended: this can drive a 5W (8Ω) loudspeaker.
US-Style Siren Circuit DiagramThe current consumption from a 12 V supply will then be about 180mA. If still more volume is desired, then T5 (a BD136) can be used as a first driver stage, and a 15W (8Ω) loudspeaker can be connected via output transistor T6. Here an AD162 or an MJ2955 can be used, which, for continuous operation, must be provided with cooling. The peak current consumption of the circuit will now be about 500mA with a 12V power supply. Capacitor C1 is not required for battery operation.
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Saturday, September 21, 2013

1983 Ford Thunderbird Wiring Diagram

1983 Ford Thunderbird Wiring Diagram

The Part of 1983 Ford Thunderbird Wiring Diagram :windshield, wiper, motor, windshield washer pump, fuse block, stop light switch, backup light switch, neutral safety switch, blower motor, oil press switch, condenser, breaker, temp.gauge(eng.unit), distributor, cyl, breaker, condenser, distributor, cyl, coil, starter, alternator, yellow, brown, starter relay, black-yellow, alternator regulator, horn, parking light, direction signal, high beam, battery, low beam, low beam, high beam, direction signal, parking light.

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Friday, September 20, 2013

1995 Lincoln Town Car v 8 Wiring Diagram

1995 Lincoln Town Car v-8  Wiring Diagram

The Part of 1995 Lincoln Town Car v-8  Wiring Diagram : glove box lamp switch, glove box, left vanity mirror lamp, switch, grounds, solid state, garage door, engine compartment lamp, hodd, trunk lid lamp switch, trunk lid, front dome switch, lamp, rear dome switch, lamp.
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Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Build a Precision full wave Rectifier Circuit Diagram

This Precision full wave Rectifier Circuit Diagram  provides accurate full wave rectification. The output impedance is low for both input polarities, and the errors are small at all signal levels. Note that the output will not sink heavy current, except a small amount through the 10K resistors. Therefore, the load applied should be referenced to ground or a negative voltage. Reversal of all diode polarities will reverse the polarity of the output

Since the outputs of the amplifiers must slew through two diode drops when the input polarity changes, 741 type devices give 5% distortion at about 300 Hz.

Precision full wave Rectifier Circuit Diagram

Build a Precision full wave Rectifier Circuit Diagram
 Sourced By:
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Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Arduino Based Low Power Wireless Solution

panStamp is an open source project created for the enthusiasts that love measuring and controlling things wirelessly. panStamps are small wireless boards specially designed to fit in low-power applications, simple to program and simple to work with. With panStamps, you can measure almost everything by simply connecting your panStamp to the sensors, placing a battery and sending wireless data from the first moment.

Arduino Based Low-Power Wireless Solution

panStamps are suitable for any kind of project needing remote control and low-power wireless transmissions, including home automation, energy metering, weather monitoring and robot control. If you are one of these three things: a hobbyist, a professional or an end-user, you will find that panStamps provide extreme flexibility and power when creating custom wireless networks.
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Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Binary Coded Decimal BCD Clock

The clock circuit above uses seven ICs and 19 LEDs to indicate binary coded decimal time. The LEDs can be arranged (as shown in example above) so that each horizontal group of 3 or 4 LEDs represents a decimal digit between 0 and 9 and each individual LED represents a single bit or (binary digit) of the value. Binary digits have only two values (0 and 1) so a number written in binary would be something like 1001 or 0011, which represents decimal numbers 9 and 3 respectively. From right to left, each binary (1) represents increasing powers of 2, so that a 1 in the right hand place represents 2^0=1 and the next place to the left is 2^1=2 and then 2^2=4, and so forth.

This makes binary counting fairly easy since each digit has a value of twice the one before or 1,2,4,8,16,32,64,etc. Thus the decimal value can be found by simply adding the values of each illuminated LED in the same row, (the total is shown in the box to the right). For example, the binary number 1001 would have a decimal value of 8+0+0+1 = 9. But this is actually a binary coded decimal 9 since only values from 0 to 9 are used 0000 to 1001. A true binary clock indicating minutes of the hour would display values from 0 to 59, or 000000 to 111011. But this would be more difficult to read since adding values 32 + 16 + 8 + 2 + 1 = 59 is not as easy as 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = 9.

Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) Clock Circuit diagram

Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) Clock
The circuit is powered by a small 12.6 VAC transformer which also provides a low voltage 60 Hz signal for a very accurate time base. The transformer is connected with the secondary center tap at ground which produces about 8 volts DC across the 3300uF filter capacitor. DC power for the circuit is regulated at about 5.5 using a NPN transistor (2N3053) and 6.2 volt zener diode. The 2N3053 gets a little warm when several LEDs are on, and may require a little (top hat type) heat sink.

A one second clock pulse is obtained by counting 60 cycles of the AC line signal. This is accomplished using a CMOS CD4040 12 stage binary counter (shown in light blue). The 60th count is detected by the two NAND gates connected to pins 2,3,5,and 6 of the counter. When all four of these lines are high, the count will be 60 resulting in a high level at pin 4 of the 74HC14 which resets the counter to zero and advances the seconds counter (74HC390 shown in purple) when pin 4 returns to a low state.

The same process is used to detect 60 seconds and 60 minutes to reset the counters and advance the minutes and hours counters respectively. In both of these cases the 2 and 4 bit lines of the tens counter section will be high (20+40=60). In all three cases (seconds, minutes and hours) a combination 10K resistor and 0.1uF capacitor is used at the input to the 74HC14 inverter to extend the pulse width to about 300uS so the counters will reliably reset. Without the RC parts, the reset pulse may not be long enough to reset all stages of the counter since as soon as the first bit resets, the inputs to the NAND gate will no longer all be high and the reset pulse will end. Adding the RC parts eliminates that possibility.

The reset process for the hours is a little different since for a 12 hour clock we need to reset the hours counter on the 13th count and then advance the counter one count so the display will indicate one ("1"). The 74HC00 quad NAND gate only has 4 sections with two inputs each so I used 3 diodes to detect the 13th hour (10 +1 +2 =13) which drives an inverter and also a transistor inverter (2N3904 or similar). The last 74HC14 inverter stage (pin 12 and 13) supplies a falling edge to the hours counter which advances the hours to "1" a short time after the reset pulse from the transistor inverter ends.

The pulse width from pin 12 of the inverter is a little shorter than from pin 10 which ensures that the hours clock line (pin 1 of yellow box) will move high before the end of the reset pulse form pin 10. If it were the other way around, the reset pulse may end before pin 12 of the inverter had a chance to reach a high level which would prevent the counter from advancing to "1". So it is important to use a shorter RC time at pin 13 than for the other Schmitt Trigger inputs. I used a 10K resistor and a 0.01uF cap to obtain the shorter time, but other values will work just as well. Only 2 sections of the 4071 OR gate are used, so the remaining 4 inputs (pins 8,9,12,13) should be terminated to ground if not used.

Copied Files Notice: This circuit diagram and text description has been copied and reposted without permission at: The copied file has also been altered to remove the authors name and date of creation which is a clear violation of copyright law. They have also copied and modified three Java Script Calculators from this website. I have e-mailed a request to have the calculators removed and received no answer. I have also contacted the web host at and received an autoresponse that the matter will be investigated but I doubt any action will occur. Please feel free to e-mail your opinions of plagiarism to

Parts List:
3 - 74HC390 - Dual BCD counters
1 - CD4040 - 12 Stage Binary Counter
1 - 74HC14 - Hex Schmitt Trigger Inverter
1 - 74HC00 - Quad NAND gate
1 - CD4071 - Quad OR gate
1 - 2N3053 - NPN transistor (may need heat sink)
1 - 2N3904 - NPN transistor
3 - 1N914 - Signal diode (1N400X will also work)
2 - 1N400X - Rectifier diodes
1 - 6.2 volt - Zener diode
1 - 3300uF - Filter Capacitor - 16 volt
1 - Power Transformer - Radio Shack 273-1365A or similar
1 - 220K 1/4 or 1/8 watt resistor
1 - 150 ohm 1/4 watt resistor
19 - 220 ohm 1/4 or 1/8 watt resistors
11 - 10K 1/4 or 1/8 watt resistors
2 - 0.01uF capacitors
4 - 0.1uF capacitors
19 - Red LEDs (15 mA)
2 - Momentary push button switches (to set the time)
1 - Toggle switch (to start the clock at a precise time)
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Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Car Battery Voltmeter with LED Indicator

The circuit was developed to create a voltmeter that will be used to test car batteries while showing an indication using LEDs.

  • Voltmeter – a device or an instrument used for measuring the electrical potential difference between two points of either alternating current or direct current electric circuit.
  • LM324 – has internal frequency compensated for unity gain, large DC voltage gain, wide bandwidth, wide power supply range, very low supply current drain, low input biasing current, low input offset voltage, large output voltage swing and differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage.
The voltage of a car battery can be measured with the use of a voltmeter as well as the charge left. A typical car battery voltage delivers around 12.6 V under no load condition and will require charging if the voltage reading is at 11.6 V. The measurement of voltage is best recommended during a high current like running the car head lights into high beam. In case the battery rapidly drops its voltage significantly under load, it would require a replacement.

This circuit will function as a comparator and will measure the car battery voltage with an interval or step of 1 V. The voltmeter will be connected across the battery terminals then starting the car. The voltage of the battery should not be measured below 10 V or else it will be considered as low in charge or low in water, since the water level of the battery should be about ¼ of an inch above the plates.

Car Battery Voltmeter with LED Indicator Schematic

Car Battery Voltmeter with LED Indicator

By applying the voltage of the battery in the inverting inputs of the amplifiers, the indicated voltage on the voltmeter is compared with the reference voltages that are produced by the Zener diode D1. The Zener diode is a special kind of diode that permits the flow of current in just one or forward direction as a normal diode, but will also allow in the reverse direction if the voltage is above or larger than a certain value of the breakdown voltage. The measured value is just enough to provide good thermic stability.

The presence of 10K trimmer RV1 is to adjust the degree of voltage that is required or desired while the visual indication will originate from the four LEDs.


D1=5V6 /0.5W Zener

RV1=10K trimmer

The main use of the car battery voltmeter is to monitor the life and performance of batteries. It can be mounted on the dashboard that shows the battery condition to easily monitor the electrical system voltage while driving. The measurement is done by switching off the engine as well all lights and accessories and switching on the key without starting the engine. The battery is full charge if the voltmeter reads 12 V or more while a voltmeter reading of much less than 12 V signifies the battery is either discharged or failing.
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Monday, September 2, 2013

Video Signal Amplifier Using with LH0024

The construction of the circuit has been increased to highlight and amplify video signals for further frequencies on image clarity.

Video Signal Amplifier Circuit diagram


LH0024 – IC small signal IC designed for general purpose switching and amplification due to its low voltage, low voltage and three different win the election 1N4148 – silicon small signal diode planar epitaxial used for fast switching applications with a reverse voltage of 100 V and forward current of 150 mA

Circuit Explanation

In a video output signal is the high rate of frames selected for amplification of producing a finer. This is possible by placing the track between the video device and the reception lobby, where the video port of the television receiver is inserted. The construction is done simply by exploiting the operation of three transistors instead of IC and other supporting elements.

An isolator operating in the first phase of the Q1, which provides an interface for input impedance. Q2 manage the second phase, which leads to the common base configuration. In this phase, determine the earnings TR2 250 ohms cutting the lawn. To adjust TR2, it must be placed where an output voltage of 1 Vp-p is present, with a load of 75 ohms. The frequency response is regulated by a combination of R6, C3, and 500 ohms TR1. An output buffer is completed by Q3 of the third phase which provides an airline pilot with 75 ohms. The range of the circuit is stabilized with 12 V and 50 mA.
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Sunday, September 1, 2013

Heat Detector Alarm Using the UM3561

A very simple heat detector alarm electronic project can be designed using the UM3561 sound generator circuit and some other common electronic parts . This heat detector electronic circuit project uses a complementary pair comprising npn and pnp transistor to detect heat . Collector of T1 transistor is connected to the base of the T2 transistor , while the collector of T2 transistor is connected to RL1 relay . T3 and T4 transistors connected in darlington configuration are used to amplify the audio signal from the UM3561 ic .

Heat Detector Alarm Circuit diagram

When the temperature close to the T1 transistor is hot , the resistance to the emitter –collector goes low and it starts conducting . In same time T2 transistor conducts , because its base is connected to the collector of T1 transistor and the RL1 relay energized and switches on the siren which produce a fire engine alarm sound . This electronic circuit project must be powered from a 6 volts DC power supply , but the UM3561 IC is powered using a 3 volt zener diode , because the alarm sound require a 3 volts dc power supply . The relay used in this project must be a 6 volt / 100 ohms relay and the speaker must have a 8 ohms load and 1 watt power .
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Saturday, August 31, 2013

 Power On Time Delay Relay Circuit

Below is a thermostat circuit I recently built to control a 1300 watt space heater. The heater element (not shown) is connected in series with two back to back 16 amp SCRs (not shown) which are controlled with a small pulse transformer. The pulse transformer has 3 identical windings, two of which are used to supply trigger pulses to the SCRs, and the third winding is connected to a PNP transistor pair that alternately supply pulses to the transformer at the beginning of each AC half cycle. The trigger pulses are applied to both SCRs near the beginning of each AC half cycle but only one conducts depending on the AC polarity.
DC power for the circuit is shown in the lower left section of the drawing and uses a 1.25uF, 400 volt non-polarized capacitor to obtain about 50mA of current from the AC line. The current is rectified by 2 diodes and used to charge a couple larger low voltage capacitors (3300uF) which provide about 6 volts DC for the circuit. The DC voltage is regulated by the 6.2 volt zener and the 150 ohm resistor in series with the line limits the surge current when power is first applied.
The lower comparator (output at pin 13) serves as a zero crossing detector and produces a 60 Hz square wave in phase with the AC line. The phase is shifted slightly by the 0.33 uF, 220K and 1K network so that the SCR trigger pulse arrives when the line voltage is a few volts above or below zero. The SCRs will not trigger at exactly zero since there will be no voltage to maintain conduction.
The upper two comparators operate in same manner as described in the "Electronic thermostat and relay" circuit. A low level at pin 2 is produced when the temperature is above the desired level and inhibits the square wave at pin 13 and prevents triggering of the SCRs. When the temperature drops below the desired level, pin 2 will move to an open circuit condition allowing the square wave at pin 13 to trigger the SCRs.
The comparator near the center of the drawing (pins 8,9,14) is used to allow the heater to be manually run for a few minutes and automatically shut off. A momentary toggle switch (shown connected to a 51 ohm resistor) is used to discharge the 1000uF capacitor so that pin 2 of the upper comparator moves to a open circuit state allowing the 60 Hz square wave to trigger the SCRs and power the heater. When the capacitor reaches about 4 volts the circuit returns to normal operation where the thermistor controls the operation. The momentary switch can also be toggled so that the capacitor charges above 4 volts and shuts off the heater if the temperature is above the setting of the pot. 
Circuit Diagram 
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Friday, August 16, 2013

Audio Rejection filter Circuit

This narrow band filter using the 741 operational amplifier can provide up to 60 dB of rejection. With resistors equal to 100 K and capacitors equal to 320 pF, the circuit will reject 50 Hz. Frequencies within the range 1 Hz to 10 kHz may be rejected by selecting components in accordance with the formula. To obtain rejections better than 40 dB, resistors should be matched to 0% and capacitors to 1%.

 Audio Rejection filter Circuit Diagram

Audio Rejection filter Circuit

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Thursday, August 15, 2013

FTDI Bitbang IR Remote Transmitter Receiver

I use my computer every single minute, I do my work at home and I need to finish lots of paperwork. My computer helps me in almost everything I do. I make sure that my pc is able to do multitasking and functioning well. Just like our body, it should be fit to do all the workload that must be finished within the day.

FTDI Bitbang IR Remote
To come up with another task that a pc can add to its functions, an IR remote was created through an FTDI that receives and transmits data other than the Universal Serial Bus. This is definitely a big help that my pc can easily cope up with simultaneously.

FTDI Bitbang IR Remote
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Wednesday, August 14, 2013

Roper 2079b00 Wiring Diagram

Roper 2079b00 Wiring Diagram
(click for full size image)

The Part of Roper 2079b00 Wiring Diagram:black wire, neutral grounded, ind lite, relay coil, clock, bake eleh, door latch, red wire,

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Tuesday, August 13, 2013

Pioneer Receiver Amplifier Cable Harness Schematic

Pioneer Wiring Diagram on Pioneer Bdp 320 To Av Receiver Or Amplifier Cable Harness Schematic
Pioneer Bdp 320 To Av Receiver Or Amplifier Cable Harness Schematic.

Pioneer Wiring Diagram on Need Pioneer Deh P3100ub Wiring Diagram   Fixya
Need Pioneer Deh P3100ub Wiring Diagram Fixya.

Pioneer Wiring Diagram on For A Pioneer Mosfet 50wx4 Need A Wiring Diagram   Or   Justanswer
For A Pioneer Mosfet 50wx4 Need A Wiring Diagram Or Justanswer.

Pioneer Wiring Diagram on Pioneer Wire Harness Deh P2500 15 17 1900 P4500mp Pr3   Ebay
Pioneer Wire Harness Deh P2500 15 17 1900 P4500mp Pr3 Ebay.

Pioneer Wiring Diagram on 1985 1994 2bnissan 2bradio 2bwiring 2bdiagram Jpg
1985 1994 2bnissan 2bradio 2bwiring 2bdiagram Jpg.

Pioneer Wiring Diagram on Pioneer Deh P6400 Wiring Diagram   Group Picture  Image By Tag
Pioneer Deh P6400 Wiring Diagram Group Picture Image By Tag.

Pioneer Wiring Diagram on Need Wiring Diagram For Model Pioneer Deh 63ub   Fixya
Need Wiring Diagram For Model Pioneer Deh 63ub Fixya.

Pioneer Wiring Diagram on Wiring Diagram
Wiring Diagram.

Pioneer Wiring Diagram on Need A Wiring Diagram For Pioneer Wma Mp3 Super   Fixya
Need A Wiring Diagram For Pioneer Wma Mp3 Super Fixya.

Pioneer Wiring Diagram on 1550 Like Manual And Other Informations  For Example  Wiring Diagram
1550 Like Manual And Other Informations For Example Wiring Diagram.

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